Embryonic and adult stem cells
Stem cells are characterized by the ability to remain undifferentiated and to self-renew. Embryonic stem cells derived from blastocysts are pluripotent able to differentiate into many cell types. Adult stem cells, which were traditionally thought to be monopotent multipotent, or tissue restricted, have recently also been shown to have pluripotent properties. Adult bone marrow stem cells have been shown to be capable of differentiating into skeletal muscle, brain microglia and astroglia, and hepatocytes. Stem cell lines derived from both embryonic stem and embryonic germ cells from the embryonic gonadal ridge are pluripotent and capable of self-renewal for long periods.
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Types of Stem Cells
Embryonic and adult stem cell therapy
Metrics details. Results published in the late 50's and early 60's marked the beginning of the stem cell era. Seminal contributions was made by Ford et al. There is no uniform definition of stem cells, but they are characterized by being i undifferentiated, ii having the potential to produce specialized differentiated cells for a long period of time, and iii postulated to be capable of maintaining or expanding the number of stem cells i. There are different types of stem cells that best can be described in the context of normal human development [ 23 ]. In theory, and to some extent in practice, an 8-cell embryo can be divided into eight single cells, and each cell has the potential of generating an individual if implanted in a woman's uterus. This technique is called cloning by "embryo-splitting" and has been performed in several species including monkeys [ 5 ].
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Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells
Stem cells and derived products offer great promise for new medical treatments. Learn about stem cell types, current and possible uses, ethical issues, and the state of research and practice. You've heard about stem cells in the news, and perhaps you've wondered if they might help you or a loved one with a serious disease. You may wonder what stem cells are, how they're being used to treat disease and injury, and why they're the subject of such vigorous debate. Stem cells are the body's master cells.
Stem cells are self-renewing, unspecialised cells that can give rise to multiple cell types of all tissues of the body. They can be derived from the embryo, foetus and adult. The ability of stem cells to divide but also to differentiate to specialised cell types like nerve and muscle, have made them candidates on which to base therapies for diseases and disorders for which no, or only partially effective, therapies are available. Replacement of defective or absent cells in defective tissues and organs could represent a cure. Here, we introduce the background to stem cell research and review the present state-of-the-art in stem cell biology, directed differentiation and tissue repair.
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